Sequans 5G/4G IoT Tech Dictionary
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) unites seven telecommunications standard development organizations, known as organizational partners, and provides their members with a stable environment to produce the reports and specifications that define 3GPP technologies, including 2G (GSM, GPRS, EDGE), 3G (HSPA, and HSPA+), 4G (LTE, LTE-Advanced, LTE Advanced Pro), and 5G (5G NR, 5G-Advanced). Among these organizations is ETSI, of which Sequans is a member.
5G Core (5GC) is the evolution of the 4G Core (see EPC). The evolution gave rise to some new functions and capabilities, but the general architecture is similar. One of the most significant differences between 4G and 5G core networks is the separation of control functions from user plane functions. The new 5GC will unleash the full power of 5G standalone, enabling faster connectivity speeds, ultra-low latency and higher bit rates, and network reliability to address numerous verticals and use cases for enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC), massive machine type communication (mMTC), and time-critical communication (TCC).
When the user device is awake and actively receiving or transmitting.
Sequans’ world-leading LTE Cat 1 chip platform, which is now in its second generation, Calliope 2, featuring ultra-low power consumption, Common Criteria EAL5+ certified integrated SIM, and an open SDK for customer applications. Calliope is optimized for IoT and supports those applications requiring throughput higher than LTE-M or support for voice or video.
Citizens Broadband Radio Service is a new private LTE network option now available in the U.S. It occupies 150 MHz of shared spectrum in the 3.5 GHz C-band, also known as Band 48. This band had been reserved for users in the U.S. military and fixed satellite service, but now has been made available by the FCC on a shared spectrum basis and will be used for private operators of mobile networks for enterprises such as municipalities, utilities, and educational organizations. Sequans supports CBRS on its Cassiopeia CB410L/CB610L (LTE Cat 4/6) modules.
Sequans’ family of Cat 4 and Cat 6 LTE-Advanced platforms featuring support for CBRS (band 48 in the USA) private LTE, an integrated high-performance network and application CPU, and a carrier-proven and mature single and dual-carrier aggregation LTE protocol stack. Cassiopeia is designed for the highest performance and efficiency as a standalone single-mode 4G LTE-A solution.
Common Criteria EAL5+
Common Criteria Evaluation Assurance Level is a security certification designation awarded by a third party assessor that grades the ability of a product to pass rigorous security requirements, according to commonly agreed upon tests. For Common Criteria exams, the highest grade is level 7, EAL7. In determining a product’s EAL level, the assessor measures it against a pre-determined protection profile (PP). The level assigned indicates the extent to which a product has been tested and proven. While the top level, EAL7 provides the greatest level of assurance that a product’s security features are proven reliable, it does not necessarily indicate a higher level of security better than EAL5 or 6 because EALs are only comparable across products with the same security target. The EAL5 designation assures developers that the product has been designed with the application of specialist security engineering techniques. The “+” suffix in EAL5+ means the product has passed one or more tests beyond level 5. Sequans is the first and only cellular IoT connectivity solutions provider to achieve the Common Criteria EAL5+ security designation for its secure enclave solution. As such, the secure enclave in Monarch 2 and Calliope 2 is the only one in the industry today that is fully GSMA compliant and can host a SIM function that can be remotely provisioned.
A Core Network – also called a backbone network – is a central conduit designed to transfer network traffic at high speeds.
Sequans’ proprietary algorithm delivering extremely low eDRX power consumption.
Extended discontinuous reception. eDRX is a technology that allows sleep mode (discontinued reception) for a prescribed period of time in order to save battery life. eDRX allows the user device to tell the network how long it would like to sleep before checking back in.
Enhanced mobile broadband refers to the initial phase of 5G non-standalone deployments which provides greater bandwidth along with moderate latency improvements on both 5G NR and 4G LTE. This will help to develop mobile broadband use cases, such as emerging AR and VR, ultra HD, or 360-degree streaming video.
ESG (environment, social, and governance) refers to a company’s commitment to sustainability, usually measured by its ability to reduce biodiversity loss and carbon footprint. Sustainable technology describes innovation in developing products that use less energy, chemicals, and water, and reduce waste from operations. Sequans’ chips and modules demonstrate industry-leading low power consumption.
Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is the terminology used to refer to the 4G Core Network, which ensures the convergence of voice and data. Compared to previous 2G and 3G architectures, which had one architecture for circuit switched (supporting voice) and another for packet switched (supporting data), the EPC enabled a true convergence in the IP world.
Embedded universal integrated circuit card; also known as embedded SIM (subscriber identity module). eUICC or eSIM is a removable or non-removable UICC which enables the remote and/or local management of profiles in a secure way. A discrete eUICC is an eUICC implemented on discrete hardware (card or chip).
Originally the GSM Association, GSMA is an industry organization that represents the interests of mobile network operators worldwide. Spanning 219 countries, the GSMA unites nearly 800 of the world’s leading mobile operators and more than 400 associate members, of which Sequans is one, from the wider ecosystem.
GCF (Global Certification Forum) is an active partnership between network operators, device manufacturers and the test industry. It has created an independent certification program to help ensure global interoperability between mobile devices and networks. Like the PTCRB, the GCF has been established to create third party cellular mobile device certification to ensure that a device meets a minimum set of requirements established by its members and complies with 3GPP standard. Some operators require GCF certification for devices running on their networks.
Integrated universal integrated circuit card; also known as integrated SIM. iUICC or iSIM is a subscriber identity module (SIM) function implemented on a tamper resistant element (TRE) that is integrated into a system–on–chip (SoC), optionally making use of remote volatile/non-volatile memory. The iSIM on Sequans Monarch 2 platform is Common Criteria EAL5+ certified and compliant with GSMA’s IoT Safe standard.
When the user device is not actively transmitting, but in light sleep and ready to transmit on short notice.
Monarch’s embedded location engine that provides highly accurate indoor and outdoor positioning without additional radios.
The ability of Monarch to dynamically select its operation mode, either LTE-M or NB-IoT.
Also known as LTE Category M1 or LTE Cat M. LTE-M is one of two technology standards developed by 3GPP and originally defined in 3GPP Release 13 to address narrowband and lower data rate IoT (Internet of Things) applications. LTE-M defines LTE category M1, which in operator deployments reaches peak rates of 1.1 Mbps uplink and 590 kbps downlink in a 1.4 MHz channel size.
Massive machine type communications began with low power wide area (LPWA) technologies, including NB-IoT and LTE-M. According to 3GPP, NB-IoT and LTE-M are LPWA 5G technologies meeting 5G mMTC requirements.
Sequans’ world-leading dual-mode LTE-M/NB-IoT chip platform, which is now in its second generation, Monarch 2, featuring ultra-low power consumption, Common Criteria EAL5+ certified integrated SIM, GNSS functionality, and an open SDK for customer applications.
Narrowband IoT; also known as LTE Category NB1 or LTE Cat NB1 or NB2. The second of the two technology standards originally defined in 3GPP Release 13 to address narrowband and low data rate IoT applications. In Release 14, 3GPP updated its definitions to include LTE category NB1 and LTE category NB2, which reaches a peak rate of 127 kbps downlink and 160 kbps uplink in a 200 kHz channel size.
Power saving mode. PSM is a sleep mode where the user device tells the network it is going to sleep for an indefinite period of time. When the user device wants to transmit, based on some logic, event trigger, or timer, it wakes up, transmits to the network and remains in receive mode for a little while.
PTCRB (PCS Type Certification Review Board) is an active partnership between network operators, device manufacturers and the test industry. It has created an independent certification program to help ensure global interoperability between mobile devices and networks. Like the GCF, the PTCRB has been established to create third party cellular mobile device certification to ensure that a device meets a minimum set of requirements established by its members and complies with 3GPP standards. Some operators require PTCRB certification for devices running on their networks.
Radio Access Network, also access network, is the radio element of the cellular telecommunications network that connects individual devices to other parts of the network through a radio link. RAN links user equipment, such as cell phones or IoT devices, to a wired or wireless backhaul connection, which then links to the core network.
Also known as 5G NR-Light, RedCap is a version of NR introduced in 3GPP Release 17 that supports reduced capability devices that have less stringent data rate requirements than enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), allowing for reduced complexity and cost. RedCap can be considered as the 5G NR replacement of 4G LTE Category 4.
enhanced Reduced Capability is a version of NR introduced in 3GPP Release 18 and that supports further reduced capability and less stringent data rate requirements than RedCap, allowing for further reduced complexity and cost. eRedCap can be considered as the 5G NR replacement of 4G LTE Category 1, operating on 20 MHz bandwidth in sub-6GHz spectrum.
The dedicated secure area on a system–on–chip that is by design protected from unauthorized access and can be used to run a limited set of applications and store confidential and cryptographic data. The secure enclave can provide the security to host the iUICC/iSIM function. Monarch 2’s integrated secure enclave provides industry highest level Common Criteria (CC) EAL5+ security, as certified by the French security agency, ANSSI, and recognized by peers, including NSA in the USA and IPA in Japan.
Monarch’s ability to support all RF frequencies from 617-2200 MHz for global operation and roaming with a single hardware configuration.
Ultra reliable low latency communications delivers full end-to-end latency reduction in 5G for mission critical applications that are especially latency-sensitive and require wide coverage.
LTE Cat 1bis
Defined in 3GPP Release 14, LTE Category 1bis can be considered as a complement to LTE-M and NB-IoT for LPWA. It covers data rates up to 10 Mbps downlink and 5 Mbps uplink in a 20 MHz channel size. LTE Cat 1bis can be cost-optimized as well as power-optimized, benefitting from a dedicated architecture supporting PSM and eDRX.